ESP32 - Servo Motor controlled by Potentiometer

This tutorial instructs you how to use ESP32 with servo motor and potentiometer. In detail, the angle of a servo motor is in proportion with the value read from a potentiometer.

Hardware Used In This Tutorial

1×ESP-WROOM-32 Dev Module
1×Micro USB Cable
1×Servo Motor
1×Potentiometer
1×Breadboard
6×Jumper Wires
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Introduction to Servo Motor and Potentiometer

We have specific tutorials about servo motor and potentiometer. Each tutorial contains detailed information and step-by-step instructions about hardware pinout, working principle, wiring connection to ESP32, ESP32 code... Learn more about them at the following links:

Wiring Diagram

wiring diagram between esp32 servo motor potentiometer

This image is created using Fritzing. Click to enlarge image

ESP32 Code

/* * This ESP32 code is created by esp32io.com * * This ESP32 code is released in the public domain * * For more detail (instruction and wiring diagram), visit https://esp32io.com/tutorials/esp32-servo-motor-controlled-by-potentiometer */ #include <Servo.h> #define PIN_POTENTIOMETER 36 // ESP32 pin GIOP36 (ADC0) onnected to potentiometer #define PIN_SERVO 26 // ESP32 pin GIOP26 onnected to servo motor Servo myServo; // create servo object to control a servo void setup() { // initialize serial communication at 9600 bits per second: Serial.begin(9600); myServo.attach(PIN_SERVO); // attaches ESP32 pin to the servo object } void loop() { // reads the value of the potentiometer (value between 0 and 4095) int analogValue = analogRead(PIN_POTENTIOMETER); // scales it to use it with the servo (value between 0 and 180) int angle = map(analogValue, 0, 4095, 0, 180); // sets the servo position according to the scaled value myServo.write(angle); // print out the value Serial.print("Analog value: "); Serial.print(analogValue); Serial.print(" => Angle: "); Serial.println(angle); delay(100); }

Quick Instructions

  • If this is the first time you use ESP32, see how to setup environment for ESP32 on Arduino IDE.
  • Do the wiring as above image.
  • Connect the ESP32 board to your PC via a micro USB cable
  • Open Arduino IDE on your PC.
  • Select the right ESP32 board (e.g. ESP32 Dev Module) and COM port.
  • Copy the above code and paste it to Arduino IDE.
  • Compile and upload code to ESP32 board by clicking Upload button on Arduino IDE
  • Arduino IDE Upload Code
  • Open Serial Monitor on Arduino IDE
  • How to open serial monitor on Arduino IDE
  • Adjust the potentiometer
  • See the servo motor's rotation
  • See the result on Serial Monitor. It looks like the below:
  • COM6
    Send
    Analog value: 0 => Angle: 0 Analog value: 85 => Angle: 14 Analog value: 201 => Angle: 35 Analog value: 286 => Angle: 50 Analog value: 370 => Angle: 65 Analog value: 444 => Angle: 78 Analog value: 521 => Angle: 91 Analog value: 608 => Angle: 106 Analog value: 690 => Angle: 121 Analog value: 793 => Angle: 139 Analog value: 907 => Angle: 159 Analog value: 4095 => Angle: 180 Analog value: 4095 => Angle: 180
    Autoscroll Show timestamp
    Clear output
    9600 baud  
    Newline  

Line-by-line Code Explanation

The above ESP32 code contains line-by-line explanation. Please read the comments in the code!

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