ESP32 - Potentiometer Triggers Piezo Buzzer

This tutorial instructs you how to use ESP32 and the potentiometer to control the piezo buzzer. In detail:

We also learn how to convert the analog value to voltage and then use the voltage threshold to control the piezo buzzer:

We will use piezo buzzer to make sound and melody of song.

Hardware Used In This Tutorial

1×ESP-WROOM-32 Dev Module
1×Micro USB Cable
1×Potentiometer
1×Piezo Buzzer
1×Breadboard
n×Jumper Wires
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Introduction to Piezo Buzzer and Potentiometer

We have specific tutorials about piezo buzzer and potentiometer. Each tutorial contains detailed information and step-by-step instructions about hardware pinout, working principle, wiring connection to ESP32, ESP32 code... Learn more about them at the following links:

Wiring Diagram

wiring diagram between esp32 potentiometer piezo buzzer

This image is created using Fritzing. Click to enlarge image

ESP32 Code - Simple Sound - Analog Threshold

/* * This ESP32 code is created by esp32io.com * * This ESP32 code is released in the public domain * * For more detail (instruction and wiring diagram), visit https://esp32io.com/tutorials/esp32-potentiometer-triggers-piezo-buzzer */ #define POTENTIOMETER_PIN 36 // ESP32 pin GIOP36 (ADC0) connected to Potentiometer pin #define BUZZER_PIN 21 // ESP32 pin GIOP21 connected to Buzzer's pin #define ANALOG_THRESHOLD 1000 void setup() { pinMode(BUZZER_PIN, OUTPUT); // set ESP32 pin to output mode } void loop() { int analogValue = analogRead(POTENTIOMETER_PIN); // read the input on analog pin if (analogValue > ANALOG_THRESHOLD) digitalWrite(BUZZER_PIN, HIGH); // turn on Piezo Buzzer else digitalWrite(BUZZER_PIN, LOW); // turn off Piezo Buzzer }

Quick Instructions

  • If this is the first time you use ESP32, see how to setup environment for ESP32 on Arduino IDE.
  • Do the wiring as above image.
  • Connect the ESP32 board to your PC via a micro USB cable
  • Open Arduino IDE on your PC.
  • Select the right ESP32 board (e.g. ESP32 Dev Module) and COM port.
  • Copy the above code and paste it to Arduino IDE.
  • Compile and upload code to ESP32 board by clicking Upload button on Arduino IDE
  • Rotate the potentiometer
  • Listen to piezo buzzer's sound

Line-by-line Code Explanation

The above ESP32 code contains line-by-line explanation. Please read the comments in the code!

ESP32 Code - Simple Sound - Voltage Threshold

The analog value read from the potentiometer is converted to voltage, and then the voltage is compared to a voltage threshold. If it exceeds the threshold, it triggers Piezo Buzzer

/* * This ESP32 code is created by esp32io.com * * This ESP32 code is released in the public domain * * For more detail (instruction and wiring diagram), visit https://esp32io.com/tutorials/esp32-potentiometer-triggers-piezo-buzzer */ #define POTENTIOMETER_PIN 36 // ESP32 pin connected to Potentiometer pin #define BUZZER_PIN 21 // ESP32 pin GIOP21 connected to Buzzer's pin #define VOLTAGE_THRESHOLD 2.5 // Voltages void setup() { pinMode(BUZZER_PIN, OUTPUT); // set ESP32 pin to output mode } void loop() { int analogValue = analogRead(POTENTIOMETER_PIN); // read the input on analog pin float voltage = floatMap(analogValue, 0, 1023, 0, 5); // Rescale to potentiometer's voltage if (voltage > VOLTAGE_THRESHOLD) digitalWrite(BUZZER_PIN, HIGH); // turn on Piezo Buzzer else digitalWrite(BUZZER_PIN, LOW); // turn off Piezo Buzzer } float floatMap(float x, float in_min, float in_max, float out_min, float out_max) { return (x - in_min) * (out_max - out_min) / (in_max - in_min) + out_min; }

ESP32 Code - Melody - Voltage Threshold

/* * This ESP32 code is created by esp32io.com * * This ESP32 code is released in the public domain * * For more detail (instruction and wiring diagram), visit https://esp32io.com/tutorials/esp32-potentiometer-triggers-piezo-buzzer */ #include "pitches.h" #define POTENTIOMETER_PIN 36 // ESP32 pin GIOP36 (ADC0) connected to Potentiometer pin #define BUZZER_PIN 21 // ESP32 pin GIOP21 connected to Buzzer's pin #define VOLTAGE_THRESHOLD 2.5 // Voltages // notes in the melody: int melody[] = { NOTE_E5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_G5, NOTE_C5, NOTE_D5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_F5, NOTE_F5, NOTE_F5, NOTE_F5, NOTE_F5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_D5, NOTE_D5, NOTE_E5, NOTE_D5, NOTE_G5 }; // note durations: 4 = quarter note, 8 = eighth note, etc, also called tempo: int noteDurations[] = { 8, 8, 4, 8, 8, 4, 8, 8, 8, 8, 2, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 8, 16, 16, 8, 8, 8, 8, 4, 4 }; void setup() { } void loop() { int analogValue = analogRead(POTENTIOMETER_PIN); // read the input on analog pin float voltage = floatMap(analogValue, 0, 1023, 0, 5); // Rescale to potentiometer's voltage if (voltage > VOLTAGE_THRESHOLD) playMelody(); // play a song } float floatMap(float x, float in_min, float in_max, float out_min, float out_max) { return (x - in_min) * (out_max - out_min) / (in_max - in_min) + out_min; } void playMelody() { // iterate over the notes of the melody: int size = sizeof(noteDurations) / sizeof(int); for (int thisNote = 0; thisNote < size; thisNote++) { // to calculate the note duration, take one second divided by the note type. //e.g. quarter note = 1000 / 4, eighth note = 1000/8, etc. int noteDuration = 1000 / noteDurations[thisNote]; tone(BUZZER_PIN, melody[thisNote], noteDuration); // to distinguish the notes, set a minimum time between them. // the note's duration + 30% seems to work well: int pauseBetweenNotes = noteDuration * 1.30; delay(pauseBetweenNotes); // stop the tone playing: noTone(BUZZER_PIN); } }

Quick Instructions

  • If this is the first time you use ESP32, see how to setup environment for ESP32 on Arduino IDE.
  • Copy the above code and paste it to Arduino IDE.
  • Create the pitches.h file On Arduino IDE:
  • Piezo Buzzer adds Pitches
    • Either click on the button just below the serial monitor icon and choose "New Tab", or use Ctrl+Shift+N.
    • Give file's name pitches.h and click OK button
    • Copy the below code and paste it to that file.
/************************************************* * Public Constants *************************************************/ #define NOTE_B0 31 #define NOTE_C1 33 #define NOTE_CS1 35 #define NOTE_D1 37 #define NOTE_DS1 39 #define NOTE_E1 41 #define NOTE_F1 44 #define NOTE_FS1 46 #define NOTE_G1 49 #define NOTE_GS1 52 #define NOTE_A1 55 #define NOTE_AS1 58 #define NOTE_B1 62 #define NOTE_C2 65 #define NOTE_CS2 69 #define NOTE_D2 73 #define NOTE_DS2 78 #define NOTE_E2 82 #define NOTE_F2 87 #define NOTE_FS2 93 #define NOTE_G2 98 #define NOTE_GS2 104 #define NOTE_A2 110 #define NOTE_AS2 117 #define NOTE_B2 123 #define NOTE_C3 131 #define NOTE_CS3 139 #define NOTE_D3 147 #define NOTE_DS3 156 #define NOTE_E3 165 #define NOTE_F3 175 #define NOTE_FS3 185 #define NOTE_G3 196 #define NOTE_GS3 208 #define NOTE_A3 220 #define NOTE_AS3 233 #define NOTE_B3 247 #define NOTE_C4 262 #define NOTE_CS4 277 #define NOTE_D4 294 #define NOTE_DS4 311 #define NOTE_E4 330 #define NOTE_F4 349 #define NOTE_FS4 370 #define NOTE_G4 392 #define NOTE_GS4 415 #define NOTE_A4 440 #define NOTE_AS4 466 #define NOTE_B4 494 #define NOTE_C5 523 #define NOTE_CS5 554 #define NOTE_D5 587 #define NOTE_DS5 622 #define NOTE_E5 659 #define NOTE_F5 698 #define NOTE_FS5 740 #define NOTE_G5 784 #define NOTE_GS5 831 #define NOTE_A5 880 #define NOTE_AS5 932 #define NOTE_B5 988 #define NOTE_C6 1047 #define NOTE_CS6 1109 #define NOTE_D6 1175 #define NOTE_DS6 1245 #define NOTE_E6 1319 #define NOTE_F6 1397 #define NOTE_FS6 1480 #define NOTE_G6 1568 #define NOTE_GS6 1661 #define NOTE_A6 1760 #define NOTE_AS6 1865 #define NOTE_B6 1976 #define NOTE_C7 2093 #define NOTE_CS7 2217 #define NOTE_D7 2349 #define NOTE_DS7 2489 #define NOTE_E7 2637 #define NOTE_F7 2794 #define NOTE_FS7 2960 #define NOTE_G7 3136 #define NOTE_GS7 3322 #define NOTE_A7 3520 #define NOTE_AS7 3729 #define NOTE_B7 3951 #define NOTE_C8 4186 #define NOTE_CS8 4435 #define NOTE_D8 4699 #define NOTE_DS8 4978
  • Compile and upload code to ESP32 board by clicking Upload button on Arduino IDE
  • Rotate the potentiometer
  • Listen to piezo buzzer's melody

Line-by-line Code Explanation

The above ESP32 code contains line-by-line explanation. Please read the comments in the code!

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