ESP32 - OLED

The OLED (Organic Light-Emitting Diode) display is an alternative for LCD display. The OLED is super-light, almost paper-thin, flexible, and produce a brighter and crisper picture.

In this tutorial, we are going to learn:

Hardware Required

1×ESP-WROOM-32 Dev Module
1×Micro USB Cable
1×SSD1306 I2C OLED Display 128x64
4×Jumper Wires
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About OLED Display

There are many types of OLED display. They differ from each other in communication interface, sizes and colors:

  • Communication interface: I2C, SPI
  • Size: 128x64, 128×32...
  • Color: white, blue, dual color...
  • ESP32 OLED

SPI is generally faster than I2C but requires more ESP32 pins. While I2C requires only two pins and can be shared with other I2C peripherals. It’s a trade-off between pins and communication speed. The choice is up to you. For OLED with I2C interface, there are several types of driver such as SSD1306, SH1106 driver . This tutorial uses SSD1306 128x64 I2C OLED Display

I2C OLED Display Pinout

  • GND pin: should be connected to the ground of ESP32
  • VCC pin: is the power supply for the display which we connect the 5 volts pin on the ESP32.
  • SCL pin: is a serial clock pin for I2C interface.
  • SDA pin: is a serial data pin for I2C interface.
  • OLED Pinout

Wiring Diagram

  • Wiring diagram with power supply from USB cable
  • ESP32 OLED Wiring Diagram

    Image is developed using Fritzing. Click to enlarge image

  • Wiring diagram with power supply from 5v adapter
  • ESP32 OLED Wiring Diagram with power adapter

    Image is developed using Fritzing. Click to enlarge image

※ NOTE THAT:

  • The order of the OLED module's pins can vary between manufacturers. ALWAYS use the labels printed on the OLED module. Look closely!
  • In the above wiring diagram, you just need to use the male-to-female jumper wires. If you use the male-to-male jumper wires, you need to use breadboard in addition. See more about jumpper wires

How To Use OLED with ESP32

Install SSD1306 OLED library

  • On Arduino IDE, Go to Tools Manage Libraries
  • ESP32 add library
  • Search “SSD1306”, then find the SSD1306 library by Adafruit
  • Click Install button to install the library.
  • ESP32 OLED library
  • You will be asked for intalling some other library dependencies
  • Click Install All button to install all library dependencies.
  • ESP32 Adafruit GFX sensor library

Program for OLED

  • Include library
#include <Wire.h> #include <Adafruit_GFX.h> #include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h>
  • Declare an SSD1306 OLED object
#define SCREEN_WIDTH 128 // OLED display width, in pixels #define SCREEN_HEIGHT 64 // OLED display height, in pixels // declare an SSD1306 display object connected to I2C Adafruit_SSD1306 oled(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, &Wire, -1);
  • In setup() function, initialize OLED display
// initialize OLED display with address 0x3C for 128x64 if (!oled.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C)) { Serial.println(F("SSD1306 allocation failed")); while (true); }
  • And then you can display text, images, draw line ...

ESP32 Code - Display Text on OLED

/* * Created by esp32io.com * * This example code is in the public domain * * Tutorial page: https://esp32io.com/tutorials/esp32-oled */ #include <Wire.h> #include <Adafruit_GFX.h> #include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h> #define SCREEN_WIDTH 128 // OLED display width, in pixels #define SCREEN_HEIGHT 64 // OLED display height, in pixels // declare an SSD1306 display object connected to I2C Adafruit_SSD1306 oled(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, &Wire, -1); void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); // initialize OLED display with address 0x3C for 128x64 if (!oled.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C)) { Serial.println(F("SSD1306 allocation failed")); while (true); } delay(2000); // wait for initializing oled.clearDisplay(); // clear display oled.setTextSize(1); // text size oled.setTextColor(WHITE); // text color oled.setCursor(0, 10); // position to display oled.println("Hello World!"); // text to display oled.display(); // show on OLED } void loop() { }

The below are some functions that you can use to display text on the OLED:

  • oled.clearDisplay(): all pixels are off
  • oled.drawPixel(x,y, color): plot a pixel in the x,y coordinates
  • oled.setTextSize(n): set the font size, supports sizes from 1 to 8
  • oled.setCursor(x,y): set the coordinates to start writing text
  • oled.setTextColor(WHITE): set the text color
  • oled.setTextColor(BLACK, WHITE): set the text color, background color
  • oled.println(“message”): print the characters
  • oled.println(number): print a number
  • oled.println(number, HEX): print a number IN hex format
  • oled.display(): call this method for the changes to make effect
  • oled.startscrollright(start, stop): scroll text from left to right
  • oled.startscrollleft(start, stop): scroll text from right to left
  • oled.startscrolldiagright(start, stop): scroll text from left bottom corner to right upper corner
  • oled.startscrolldiagleft(start, stop): scroll text from right bottom corner to left upper corner
  • oled.stopscroll(): stop scrolling

ESP32 Code - Drawing on OLED

/* * Created by esp32io.com * * This example code is in the public domain * * Tutorial page: https://esp32io.com/tutorials/esp32-oled */ #include <Wire.h> #include <Adafruit_GFX.h> #include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h> #define SCREEN_WIDTH 128 // OLED display width, in pixels #define SCREEN_HEIGHT 64 // OLED display height, in pixels // declare an SSD1306 display object connected to I2C Adafruit_SSD1306 oled(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, &Wire, -1); void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); // initialize OLED display with address 0x3C for 128x64 if (!oled.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C)) { Serial.println(F("SSD1306 allocation failed")); while (true); } delay(2000); // wait for initializing oled.setCursor(0, 0); } void loop() { // draw rectangle oled.clearDisplay(); oled.drawRect(0, 15, 60, 40, WHITE); oled.display(); delay(2000); // fill rectangle oled.clearDisplay(); oled.fillRect(0, 15, 60, 40, WHITE); oled.display(); delay(2000); // draw the round rectangle oled.clearDisplay(); oled.drawRoundRect(0, 15, 60, 40, 8, WHITE); oled.display(); delay(2000); // fill the round rectangle oled.clearDisplay(); oled.fillRoundRect(0, 15, 60, 40, 8, WHITE); oled.display(); delay(2000); // draw circle oled.clearDisplay(); oled.drawCircle(20, 35, 20, WHITE); oled.display(); delay(2000); // fill circle oled.clearDisplay(); oled.fillCircle(20, 35, 20, WHITE); oled.display(); delay(2000); // draw triangle oled.clearDisplay(); oled.drawTriangle(30, 15, 0, 60, 60, 60, WHITE); oled.display(); delay(2000); // fill triangle oled.clearDisplay(); oled.fillTriangle(30, 15, 0, 60, 60, 60, WHITE); oled.display(); delay(2000); }

ESP32 Code – Display Image

To draw image on OLED, we have to convert the image (any format) to the bitmap array first. The conversion can be done by using this online tool. Please see how to convert image to bitmap array on the below image. I converted the ESP32 icon to bitmap array.

image to bitmap array

After converting, copy the array code and update the array code in the ESP32Icon array in the below code

/* * Created by esp32io.com * * This example code is in the public domain * * Tutorial page: https://esp32io.com/tutorials/esp32-oled */ #include <Wire.h> #include <Adafruit_GFX.h> #include <Adafruit_SSD1306.h> #define SCREEN_WIDTH 128 // OLED display width, in pixels #define SCREEN_HEIGHT 64 // OLED display height, in pixels // declare an SSD1306 display object connected to I2C Adafruit_SSD1306 oled(SCREEN_WIDTH, SCREEN_HEIGHT, &Wire, -1); // bitmap of arduino-icon image const unsigned char ArduinoIcon [] PROGMEM = { // 'arduino-icon', 128x64px 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xe0, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x07, 0x80, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xe0, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x03, 0x80, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xc0, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x03, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xc0, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xc0, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xc0, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0x80, 0x0f, 0x80, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0x80, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x07, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0x80, 0x07, 0x80, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x7f, 0xff, 0x80, 0x07, 0xc0, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x0f, 0xc0, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xc0, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xe0, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x03, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xe0, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x07, 0x80, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0x80, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x07, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x1f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xe0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf8, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x7f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfc, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xf0, 0x00, 0x01, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xfe, 0x00, 0x00, 0x3f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0x00, 0x0f, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xc0, 0x03, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff, 0xff }; void setup() { Serial.begin(9600); // initialize OLED display with address 0x3C for 128x64 if (!oled.begin(SSD1306_SWITCHCAPVCC, 0x3C)) { Serial.println(F("SSD1306 allocation failed")); while (true); } delay(2000); // wait for initializing oled.setCursor(0, 0); } void loop() { oled.clearDisplay(); // display bitmap oled.drawBitmap(0, 0, ArduinoIcon, 128, 64, WHITE); oled.display(); delay(2000); // invert display oled.invertDisplay(1); delay(2000); }

OLED Troubleshooting

If OLED does not display any thing, please do the following check list:

  • Make sure that your wiring is correct.
  • Make sure that your I2C OLED uses SSD1306 Driver.
  • Check the I2C address of OLED by running the below I2C Address Scanner code on ESP32
// I2C address scanner program #include <Wire.h> void setup() { Wire.begin(); Serial.begin(9600); Serial.println("I2C Scanner"); } void loop() { byte error, address; int nDevices; Serial.println("Scanning..."); nDevices = 0; for(address = 1; address < 127; address++ ) { Wire.beginTransmission(address); error = Wire.endTransmission(); if (error == 0) { Serial.print("I2C device found at address 0x"); if (address < 16) Serial.print("0"); Serial.print(address,HEX); Serial.println(" !"); nDevices++; } else if (error==4) { Serial.print("Unknown error at address 0x"); if (address < 16) Serial.print("0"); Serial.println(address,HEX); } } if (nDevices == 0) Serial.println("No I2C devices found"); else Serial.println("done"); delay(5000); // wait 5 seconds for next scan }

The result on Serial Monitor:

COM6
Send
Scanning... I2C device found at address 0x3C ! done Scanning... I2C device found at address 0x3C ! done
Autoscroll Show timestamp
Clear output
9600 baud  
Newline  

※ NOTE THAT:

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